1. Although France, Spain, and Germany ruined Italy politically with warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries, which country had the most impact on politics in Italy?
2. What term is used to describe the transition from the medieval world to the modern world?
B) Lower Middle Ages
C) Agriculture RevolutionX
3. Because Louis IX abolished serfdom in his domain, made the tax system more equitable, and gave his subjects the right of appeal from lower courts to higher courts, the French came to associate their king with justice and a national feeling.
4. Aztec society was hierarchical, authoritarian, and militaristic; their society was made up of nobles and commoners.
5. In the Middle Ages, the clergy was a type of open estate because membership was based on training rather than birth.
6. It is said that Europe escaped its isolation from the rest of the world during the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300). What mostly contributed to this?
A) the creation of a new, rich merchant class
B) the Crusades
C) trade along the Silk Road from Europe to China
D) both B and CX
7. Aztec women could inherit and own property.
8. The domestication of what crop secured Mesoamerica and became one of the most important crops in North America because it could be used to feed livestock?
9. All of the religious people who lived and worked directly among the laity are called
A) regular clergy
B) secular clergy
10. Which group constructed over 14,000 miles of road and rope bridges?
11. Southern Mesoamerica in the 6th century included which modern day area(s. ?
A) Guatemala and the HondurasX
B) the Yucatan Peninsula
C) Belize and El Salvador
D) all of the above
12. The Maya had a calendar.
13. Who had the largest population, estimated in the millions, before Europeans arrived in the 1500s?
14. The largest and lowest social group in medieval society was a group who completely made the wealthiest and highest class possible. Who were they?
15. What is the term given to the fighting between France and England from the late 12th century to the early 13th century?
A) the Bacon Rebellion
B) Hundred Years War
C) Cluny Reform MovementX
D) the First Victory
16. The population of Europe did what from 1000 to 1300?
A) barely changed at all
B) remained stagnantX
17. Which of the following were the basic social groups of the Middle Ages?
A) knights or nobilityX
D) all of the above
18. The Black Death, or Bubonic Plague, was more than likely caused by
A) poor hygiene
B) rats brought from the Black Seas
C) lack of sewage and flowing water
D) none of the aboveX
19. How many designated popes were there during the Great Schism and remained as popes until the re uniting of the church in 1417?
20. By the end of what century did kings become more powerful than popes?
21. Who came into contact with the some 250,000 Aztecs in 1519?
A) the French
B) the SpanishX
C) the Maya
D) the Toltecs
22. By providing kings with the resources they needed to curb factious noblemen, what became a major force in the transition from feudal societies to national governments?
23. Which of the following occurred during the Middle Ages?
A) the Black Death or Bubonic Plague
B) criticism of the nature of God and a great schism in the church
C) the invention of print
D) all of the aboveX
24. Mesoamerica covered what regions?
A) from central Spain into Central America
B) from northern Mexico to Guatemala
C) from central Mexico into Central America
D) from Spain into the Honduras
25. In 910, what movement started in order to free the church from secular, political influence and control?
A) the CrusadesX
B) the First Victory
C) the Investiture Struggle
D) the Cluny Reform Movement