rest of the UK. Many of the others came from East European countries which joined the European Union in 2004. Migrants from Eastern Europe Poland Slovakia Latvia Lithuania Czech Republic
Hungary Estonia Slovenia 71% 7% 6% 6% 4% 3% 2% 1%
Where Scots emigrated to in 2006 Canada Ireland France Spain U.S.A.South Africa Australia New Zealand
Source B Approximately 60% of East European migrants are employed in hospitality and catering, agriculture, the building trades and food processing. Employers in these sectors say they
prefer migrant workers in comparison to Scottish workers. Migrants work longer hours for lower wages, accepting this since wages are higher than back home. By saving hard, they can return
home much richer. Local councils, however, complain that they are faced with many extra costs, eg translation services, because of foreign workers. Many seasonal workers, eg fruit pickers, live
in substandard, overcrowded accommodation. A lot of their wages goes on rent. Some have returned home permanently after promises of good wages turned out to be false.
Employers often do
not tell them their employment rights. Many migrants are college graduates, overqualified for the work they do. Most are young males with no family and some say that working long hours
means they spend less. The increase in cheap flights means they can afford to go home for a holiday and then return to their work in Scotland. The Polish economy, meanwhile, is suffering a skills
shortage as many of their best workers have gone abroad. Source C Scottish graduates have always made homes and careers abroad. Traditionally, many science graduates emigrated to
Australia and New Zealand. Now it is graduates in English who are going to China, which wants to develop the language skills of its technological workforce. Graduates teach in Chinese
universities on long-term contracts. In turn, Chinese students, once they are fluent in English, may well work abroad. Only 36 000 Britons live in China, which is a vast country. Many newlyarrived
Britons feel a sense of loneliness after the initial novelty of the different culture wears off. They struggle to understand the complexities of the Chinese language.
(a) Using the sources, describe the typical Eastern European immigrant to Scotland.
(b) From your own knowledge, describe the advantages that immigrants can bring to a country.
(c) From the sources, give examples of problems that immigrants might face in their new country.
(d) Look at the map in Source A. From your own knowledge, give reasons to explain why Scots emigrated to the countries shown on the map.