The human body is truly remarkable and is designed to function effectively. Organs are important structures composed of different tissues that facilitate specific functions within the body. Organs function as part of an integrated group of structures known as organ systems. These organ systems form the organizational units that are responsible for crucial processes necessary for sustaining life.
Examples of organ systems include but are not limited to the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system and the respiratory system. Even organ systems do not function alone. These systems work together, interacting with other organs in a functional network that keeps the body in balance. (Look up the term homeostasis in your text.) When homeostasis or the normal functioning of organ systems is disrupted, disease may develop causing injury to the body, or even death. In this assignment, you will explore organ systems, as well as associated diseases or malfunctions.
Take a look at the following case studies that detail an outcome associated with a disease/organ malfunction. Select one study to investigate further for your assignment.
Critically evaluate the information provided and correlate it with the organ systems that are affected in the scenario. Use the information that you have gathered to answer the assignment questions that follow the case study. For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, the Library, Web resources, and course materials.
Case Study 2:
Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing an estimated 438,000 deaths – or about 1 out of every 5 – each year (National Cancer Institute, 2008).
Mr. Amos is now 57 years old and has been smoking for the past 30 years of his life. A recent doctor’s visit reveals that Mr. Amos has stage 3 lung cancer, characterized by his symptoms of nagging chest pain, fatigue, coughing up blood, substantial weight loss, and increased carbon dioxide levels in his blood. The doctor informed Mr. Amos that had he quit his smoking habit several years ago, he would have reduced his risk for developing lung cancer later in life. Mr. Amos immediately begins treatment for the lung cancer that has metastasized to his lymph nodes.
Answer the following assignment questions:
1. What main components in cigarettes affect the respiratory system? Explain their effects on specific organs, cells and/or processes in the respiratory system.
2. There are alternate mechanisms of transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2 ) in the blood. Explain how smoking might lead to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Can smoking affect other organ systems of the body? Give specific examples and briefly explain your answer.
4. How can you correlate cellular respiration with the respiratory system?
5. Does smokeless tobacco present a reduced risk for lung cancer and other smoking associated diseases? Provide evidence for your answer.
National Cancer Institute. (2008). Tobacco statistics snapshot. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/tobacco/statisticssnapshot#0_references